A valoração contingente como ferramenta de economia aplicada à conservação ambiental: o caso da Estrada Parque Pantanal

Benefícios Econômicos Locais de Áreas Protegidas na Região de Manaus, Amazonas

Jalapão Water Diversion

Three Brazil 2000 course participants not previously acquainted worked together to analyze potential impacts of water diversion from the Tocantins River in central Brazil. The project would have diverted water from the Tocantins in the Jalapáo region, a unique transition zone between Cerrado woodland and caatinga. The water would be pumped into Brazil's arid Northeast for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Fani Mamede, formerly of IBAMA, Brazil's environmental agency, Paulo Garcia, a conservationist working with the municipality of Mateiros and Wilson Cabral, an engineer at the Sáo Paulo-based Technology and Aeronautics Institute, performed an analysis of the project's potentially extensive environmental and economic impacts.

Pantanal Scenic Parkway

The Pantanal in southwest Brazil is the world's largest continuous wetland, extending for over 140,000 square kilometers and host to a spectacular array of flora and fauna. Among the 650+ species of birds and over 80 species of mammals are parrots, toucans, jaguar, maned wolf, giant otter, and capybara. CSF is helped former course participants Leonardo Hasenclever and Eduardo Garcia conduct a contingent valuation study of tourism on the Pantanal Scenic Parkway to determine its potential for generating conservation revenue. Ninety-nine percent of the Pantanal is privately owned, mostly by large cattle ranchers whose herds graze the native grasses sustainalby.

Amazon Forest Fires

CSF worked with Brazil 2000 course participant, Ricardo de Assis Mello, a researcher with IPAM (Amazon Environmental Research Institute), to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of alternative agricultural methods aimed at preventing destructive forest fires.

Farmers in the Eastern Amazon see few alternatives to the traditional slash and burn agricultural. As a direct consequence, in the states of Pará and Mato Grosso, the area of forest burned by accidental fires is greater than the amount of land intentionally burned for agriculture. Ricardo worked with IPAM as part of a World Bank Pilot Program for Tropical Forest Protection that aims to develop no-burn agricultural clearing methods.

Payment for Environmental Services in the Atlantic Rainforest

Financial sustainability of protected areas is always a challenge in developing countries. In this project, CSF developed a methodology to implement a Payment for Environmental Services (PES) system focused on water conservation for human consumption in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. This payment system approach is supported by the 47th and 48th articles of the Brazilian National System of Conservation Units Law (which goes by the Portuguese acronym SNUC), which aim to generate income for protected areas management. The project study area was the Guapiaçu and Macacu rivers basin in Três Picos State Park, close to Rio de Janeiro city. This basin provides water for about 1.7 million people.

Our analysis was developed in five phases:

Economic Benefits of Manaus Parks

What is the local economic impact of protected areas creation and management? Protected areas are commonly considered barriers to economic development because they impose limits or even completely block the use of natural resources. However, this study demonstrated that 10 protected areas located up to 200 km from Manaus city in the Brazilian Amazon provide an source of important income for the local economy. In some situations, these incomes can even surpass earnings generated by land uses such as cattle ranching. The study also found that in the case of the Manaus, the economic activity generated by protected areas - mostly in the form of local spending and employment for research and protection activities - was paid for by money originating outside the region and even outside Brazil.

Belo Monte Dam

In this study, we analyzed the costs and benefits of the Belo Monte project on the Xingu River in the Southern Amazon. For our analysis, we created three scenarios. The first examines only the “internal” costs and benefits of Belo Monte as an energy project, excluding the costs of its impacts on competing economic activities and the environment. In the second scenario we included some external costs: tourism losses, impacts on water supply and fisheries and declines in water quality during construction. The third scenario also includes these external costs, and estimated energy benefits based on an alternative model, called HydroSim, developed at the Campinas State University (UNICAMP) in São Paulo.

Paraguay-Paraná Waterway

This study presents an analysis of the implications of proposed upgrades to the Paraguay-Paraná waterway on the Mato Grosso State soybean transportation. The waterway passes through the vast and biologically rich Pantanal wetlands, shared by Bolivia and Brazil. Social cost-benefit analyses were carried out for 4 distinct scenarios. The results cast doubt on the feasibility of waterway improvements, mostly due to environmental externalities and to limitations on cargo transfer to the waterway route.

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